Data Characterization, Analysis and Statistics Task Group
Scholarly Products 1995 - 2000

A geographic information system to support scientific collaboration among members of CRESP
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): A. Smith, C. Hendricksen, R. Moore, and W.C. Griffith.
Document Type: CRESP Submitted Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: International Journal of Geographic Information Systems
Abstract:
A literature review of published applications of Monte Carlo simulation methods to quantitative risk assessment
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): and B. Binkowitz.
Document Type: CRESP Researcher Reports
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: April.
Abstract:
An index of harm for exposure to a combination of radiation and chemical pollutants. Poster
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): and C. Drew.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: CRESP 1998 Annual Meeting, Dingmans Ferry, Pa, June.
Abstract:
An update of the Savannah River Site worker mortality study
Author: Wartenberg, D. Other Author(s):
Document Type:
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: Subcommittee of the SRS Citizens Advisory Committee, Augusta, Ga. March.
Abstract:
An update of the Savannah River Site Worker mortality study
Author: Wartenberg, D. Other Author(s):
Document Type:
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: Subcommittee of the SRS Citizens Advisory Committee, Augusta,Ga. October.
Abstract:
An update of worker mortality at a nuclear fuels production facility
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): S. Brown, S. Mohr, D.L. Cragle, and B. Friedlander.
Document Type: CRESP Researcher Reports
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: CRESP-EOHSI Data Characterization and Statistics Task Group Report #2, October
Abstract:
An update on the possible tritium-leukemia link among workers at the Savannah River Site
Author: Wartenberg, D. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Subcommittee of the SRS Citiizens Advisory Committee. Augusta, Ga, March.
Abstract:
Applications of GIS
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1996
Citation: Symposium on Risk. CRESP, Seattle, WA, May 15.
Abstract:
Are African-American nuclear workers at lower mortality risk than whites
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): S. Brown, S. Mohr, D.L. Cragle, and D. Friedlander.
Document Type: CRESP Submitted Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200x
Citation:
Abstract:
Biological effects of inhaled 144CeC13 in beagle dogs
Author: Hahn, F.F., Other Author(s): B.B. Boecker, W.C. Griffith, and B.A. Muggenburg.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Inhalation Research 147: 92-108.
Abstract: The biological effects of 144Ce were studied in beagle dogs that were exposed to graded activity levels of 144CeCl3 via a single, brief inhalation exposure and observed for their life span. The long-term retained body burdens ranged from 0.06 to 13 MBq/kg with a median of 1.2 MBq/kg. After a short residence time in the lung, most of the 144Ce was translocated to liver and skeleton, where the 144Ce was retained with a half-time approaching the physical half-life of 144Ce, 284 days. Significant radiation doses were delivered to the lung, 28 Gy (median) and 2.5-370 Gy (range); liver, 68 Gy (median) and 6.1-250 Gy (range); and skeleton, 21 Gy (median) and 1.9-100 Gy (range). Lesions induced by the -particle radiation were noted in the lung, liver, skeleton, bone marrow, and oral and nasal mucosae closely associated with bone. Early deaths (within 2.5 years) were generally related to hematological dyscrasia, radiation pneumonitis, or hepato-cellular degeneration and atrophy. Neoplasms that occurred relatively early, from 2.2-6.8 years after exposure, were noted in the liver, bone, bone marrow and oral mucosa closely associated with bone. Neoplasms that occurred later, beyond 7 years after exposure, were noted in the liver, lung and nasal mucosa closely associated with bone. Increased numbers of neoplasms were not found in two other organs that had relatively high radiation doses, namely the thyroid and kidney. Only one primary bone tumor was noted, but 11 tumors of bone-associated tissues (oral and nasal mucosae and bone marrow) were found. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, especially those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited bone-seeking radionuclides, such as 144Ce . The property of 144Ce in depositing on and remaining associated with bone surfaces for long times may be an important factor in the radiation dose to bone marrow and epithelium adjacent to bone.
Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239 Pu inhaled as 239Pu02 by F344 rats
Author: Finch, G.L., Other Author(s): D.L. Lundgren, E.B. Barr, B.T. Chen, W.C. Griffith, C.H. Hobbs, M.D. Hoover, K.J. Nikula, and J.L. Mauderly.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Health Physics 75(6): 597-609.
Abstract: As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tuniors from inhaled 239PuO2, in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239PuO2, alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air alone served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m^-3 (LCS or UCS, respectively) began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d^-1, 5 d wk^-1, for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239PuO2, was given to all rats (control, LCS and HCS) at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239PuO2, exposure deposited less 239Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239PuO2 exposure.Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239PuO2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rates exposed to 239PuO2 and LCS or 239PuO2 and HCS, respectively.
Comparison of bone cancer risks in Beagle dogs for inhaled plutonium-238 dioxide, inhaled strontium-90 chloride, and injected strontium-90
Author: Griffith, W.C., Other Author(s): B.A. Muggenburg, F.F. Hahn, R.A. Guilmette, B.B. Boecker, and R.D. Lloyd.
Document Type: CRESP Submitted Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: Radiation Research.
Abstract:
Comparison of the disposition of butadine epoxides in Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice following a single and repeated exposures to 1,3-butadiene via inhalation
Author: Thornton-Manning, J.R., Other Author(s): A.R. Dahl, W.E. Bechtold, W.C. Griffith, and R.F. Henderson.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Toxicology 123: 125-134.
Abstract: 1,3-Butadiene (BD), a compound used extensively in the rubber industry, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats in chronic carcinogenicity bioassays. While many chemicals are known to alter their own metabolism after repeated exposures, the effect of exposure prior to BD on its in vivo metabolism has not been reported. The purpose of the present research was to examine the effect of repeated exposure to BD on tissue concentrations of two mutagenic BD metabolites, butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BD02). Concentrations of BD epoxides were compared in several tissues of rats and mice following a single exposure or ten repeated exposures to a target concentration of 62.5 ppm BD. Female Sprague-Dawley rats and female B6C3F, mice were exposed to BD for 6 h or 6 h x 10 days. BDO and BDO, were quantified in blood and several other tissues following preparation by cryogenic vacuum distillation and analysis by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood and lung BDO concentrations did not differ significantly (P <0.05) between the two exposure regimens in either species. Following multiple exposures to BD, BDO levels were 5- and 1.6-fold higher (P < 0.05) in mammary tissue and 2- and 1.4-fold higher in fat tissue of rats and mice, respectively, as compared with single exposures. BDO, levels also increased in rat fat tissue following multiple exposures to BD. However, in mice, levels of this metabolite decreased by 15% in fat, by 28% in mammary tissue and by 34% in lung tissue following repeated exposures to BD. The finding that the mutagenic epoxide BDO, which is the precursor to the highly mutagenic BDO2, accumulates in rodent fat may be important in assessing the potential risk to humans from inhalation of BD.
Comparison of the efficiency of double and single composites of environmental samples for the detection of binary events
Author: Griffith, W.C., Other Author(s): G. van Belle, and S. Edland.
Document Type: CRESP In Press Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: Communications in Statistics
Abstract:
Composite Sampling - Doting on Very Absence. Poster
Author: Griffith, W. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: First Annual Health of the Hanford Site Conference: Current Challenges. Richland, WA, December 3-4.
Abstract:
Composite sampling-Doting on very absence
Author: van Belle, G., Other Author(s): S. Edland, and W.C. Griffith.
Document Type: CRESP Submitted Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: Environmental and Ecological Statistics.
Abstract: We sampled fish in three small southeastern streams before and after a nuclear cooling water reservoir was constructed on one of the streams to determine the effects of the reservoir on adjacent stream fish assemblage structure. We also sampled habitat structure and conducted a caging experiment to assess the roles of local habitat alteration and stress from pollutants associated with the reservoir in producing fish assemblage changes. When compared to reference streams, assemblage changes from before to after reservoir construction were significantly (P <0.05) greater at sites on the stream where the reservoir was constructed. Investigation of responses of habitat guilds found species that reach peak abundance in smaller (upstream species) and larger (downstream species) streams decreased and increased in abundance, respectively. Local habitat structure was a poor predictor of the abundance of two species that declined (Not,ropis lutipinnis and Nocomus leptocephalus) and two species that increased (Lepomis autitus and L.,punctatus) in abundance following reservoir construction. Survival and condition factor of adult Noturus insignia held below the reservoir and in a reference stream did not differ significantly after 39 days. We conclude that upstream and downstream macrohabitat guilds can be useful in detecting risk from human impacts to stream systems, and local habitat alteration and acute or chronic stress to adults from pollution or water quality changes in the reservoir played minor roles in producing the observed fish assemblage changes. We sampled fish in three small southeastern streams before and after a nuclear cooling water reservoir was constructed on one of the streams to determine the effects of the reservoir on adjacent stream fish assemblage structure. We also sampled habitat structure and conducted a caging experiment to assess the roles of local habitat alteration and stress from pollutants associated with the reservoir in producing fish assemblage changes. When compared to reference streams, assemblage changes from before to after reservoir construction were significantly (P < 0.05) greater at sites on the stream where the reservoir was constructed. Investigation of responses of habitat guilds found species that reach peak abundance in smaller (upstream species) and larger (downstream species) streams decreased and increased in abundance, respectively. Local habitat structure was a poor predictor of the abundance of two species that declined (Not,ropis lutipinnis and Nocomus leptocephalus) and two species that increased (Lepomis autitus and L.,punctatus) in abundance following reservoir construction. Survival and condition factor of adult Noturus insignia held below the reservoir and in a reference stream did not differ significantly after 39 days. We conclude that upstream and downstream macrohabitat guilds can be useful in detecting risk from human impacts to stream systems, and local habitat alteration and acute or chronic stress to adults from pollution or water quality changes in the reservoir played minor roles in producing the observed fish assemblage changes.
CRESP risk information project: Ongoing collaboration between IEHR and DCAS-UW, Poster
Author: Drew, C., Other Author(s): K. McCarthy, T.L. Nyerges and A. Smith.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: CRESP 1998 Annual Meeting, Dingmans Ferry, Pa, June.
Abstract:
Determinants of public involvement among resident living near the Savannah River Site
Author: Brown, S., Other Author(s): and B. Williams.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Annual meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Phoenix, AZ.
Abstract:
Developing a theoretical framework for collaborative risk evaluation using Geographic Information Systems. Poster
Author: Drew, D.H., Other Author(s): and T.L. Nyerges.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: CRESP 1998 Annual Meeting, Dingmans Ferry, Pa, June.
Abstract:
Developing a theoretical framework for collaborative risk evaluation using GIS
Author: Drew, C., Other Author(s): and T. Nyerges.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Poster. Second Annual Health of the Hanford Site Conference, Richland, WA. November 3-4.
Abstract:
Developing and using interaction coding systems for studying groupware use
Author: Nyerges, T.L., Other Author(s): T.J. Moore, R. Montejano, and M. Compton.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Human-Computer Interaction 13: 127-165.
Abstract: Groupware use can be described as a process of social (human-computer-human) interaction. For example, small groups can use a group-based geographic information system (GIS) to share maps and decision tables during a discussion about selection of sites for salmon habitat improvement in Seattle, Washington. Empirical research about groupware use is intended to improve our understanding of the dynamics of the process, as well as improve our understanding of the development requirements for information technology. Gaining a detailed understanding of the human-computer-human interaction process requires reasonably unobtrusive observation--for example, using video cameras to capture and replay the ebb and flow of interaction. From each replay of videotape we can abstract a different research view, hence characterize the ebb and flow of interaction from a different perspective, giving us deeper insight into the interaction. Interpreting and synthesizing the raw observations to make sense of what went on during interaction" can be accomplished through the use of interaction coding systems. In this article, we report on the development of three interaction coding systems that were created for studying the use of a group-based, research prototype GIS software, called Spatial Group Choice. We wrote this article to help researchers compare approaches to the development of coding systems and compare the value of their use. Despite previous use of coding systems by others, there are no detailed reports in the literature of how researchers devised their coding systems. We discuss in detail the process of creating and using such coding systems, describing the advantages and disadvantages of performing interaction coding to foster an understanding of group dynamics in different settings and for designing new groupware.
Disparity in quantitative risk assessment: A review of input distributions
Author: Binkowitz, B., Other Author(s): and D. Wartenberg.
Document Type: CRESP In Press Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: Risk Analysis
Abstract:
Disposition of butadiene epoxides in Sprague-Dawley rats following exposures to 8000 ppm 1,3-butadiene: Comparisons with tissue epoxide concentrations following low-level exposures
Author: Thornton-Manning, J.R., Other Author(s): A.R. Dahl, M.L. Allen, W.E. Bechtold, W.C. Griffith, and R.F. Henderson.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Toxological Sciences 41: 167-173.
Abstract: 1,3-Butadiene (BD), a compound used extensively in the rubber industry, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats in chronic carcinogenicity bioassays. While many chemicals are known to alter their own metabolism after repeated exposures, the effect of exposure prior to BD on its in vivo metabolism has not been reported. The purpose of the present research was to examine the effect of repeated exposure to BD on tissue concentrations of two mutagenic BD metabolites, butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO2). Concentrations of BD epoxides were compared in several tissues of rats and mice following a single exposure or ten repeated exposures to a target concentration of 62.5 ppm BD. Female Sprague-Dawley rats and female B6C3F, mice were exposed to BD for 6 h or 6 h x 10 days. BDO and BDO2 were quantified in blood and several other tissues following preparation by cryogenic vacuum distillation and analysis by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Blood and lung BDO concentrations did not differ significantly (P <0.05) between the two exposure regimens in either species. Following multiple exposures to BD, BDO levels were 5- and 1.6-fold higher (P < 0.05) in mammary tissue and 2- and 1.4-fold higher in fat tissue of rats and mice, respectively, as compared with single exposures. BDO2 levels also increased in rat fat tissue following multiple exposures to BD. However, in mice, levels of this metabolite decreased by 15% in fat, by 28% in mammary tissue and by 34% in lung tissue following repeated exposures to BD. The finding that the mutagenic epoxide BDO, which is the precursor to the highly mutagenic BDO2, accumulates in rodent fat may be important in assessing the potential risk to humans from inhalation of BD.
DocReview 2.2: Document annotation system
Author: Hendrikson, C. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Computer Programs Developed
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: April 8.
Abstract:
DocReview 3.0 document annotation system
Author: Hendrickson, C. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Computer Programs Under Development
Publication Date: 200X
Citation:
Abstract:
Empirical research strategies for investigating risk evalluation with stakeholder participation at Hanford
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Society for Risk Analysis 1998 Annual Meeting. Phoenix, AZ, December 9.
Abstract:
Enhanced adaptive structuration theory: A theory of GIS-supported collaborative decision making
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): and P. Jankowski.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Geographic Systems 4(3): 225-257.
Abstract:
Evaluating the usability of the risk information tool
Author: Griffith, W. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Questionnaires and Instruments Under Development
Publication Date: 200X
Citation:
Abstract:
Geographic Information Systems for risk evaluation: A perspective on applications in environmental health
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): M. Robkin, and T.J. Moore.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) and International Society for Exposure Assessment (ISEA) Joint Meeting. Session on Approaches to Performing and Utilizing Risk Assessment at DOE Sites. New Orleans, LA, December 8-11.
Abstract: Over the past several years many applications of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to risk evaluation for environmental health have been documented. A GIS can be described as a combination of software and hardware for storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying spatially-referenced data to address complex planning, management and operational problems, in this case for addressing concerns in environmental health. GIS applications in risk evaluation to environmental health are reviewed and categorized to provide a sense of the kinds of contributions to knowledge that have been made from various literature. The review and categorization makes use of a comprehensive risk evaluation framework synthsized from several component frameworks including risk sreening, risk assessments, risk management, risk analysis, and risk monitoring. The purpose of devising such a broad based framework is to better understand where, when and how GIS might have a potential impact in a risk evaluation process. A detailed examination of articles uncovers what data, analysis, and information products are possible and appropriate for risk evaluation. Fruitful research directions concerning GIS for risk evaluation in environmental health are suggested.
Geographic information systems for risk evaluation: Perspectives on applications to environmental health
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): M. Robkin, and T.J. Moore.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems: GIS and Risk Assessment 24(3): 123-144.
Abstract: Geographic information system (GIS) applications for risk evaluation concerning environmental and ecological health are appearing with greater frequency. In this paper, we devise a conceptual framework for risk evaluation that encompasses and synthesizes several component frameworks (including risk scoping, risk communication, risk assessment(risk analysis), risk management, and risk monitoring) concerning environmental health, and hence human and ecological impacts. The purpose of devising the framework was to understand better where, when, and how GIS might be used for risk evaluation, and to identify gaps in knowledge requiring further research. An examination of 40 publications shows that most of the research done on the use of GIS for risk evaluation concerned applications in risk assessment rather than risk scoping, management, and risk monitoring. A four-level risk assessment framework is proposed, and criteria for evaluating the work are used to clarify what has been accomplished overall and where research opportunities exist. Future directions for the application of GIS in risk evaluation are suggested.
GIS and risk assessment: Differentiating multiple levels of analysis
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): C. Drew, N. Hedley, and C. Hendricksen
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Society for Risk Analysis 1997 Annual Meeting. Washington, DC, December 10.
Abstract:
GIS for risk evaluation: A conceptual framework
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting. Ft. Worth, TX, April 1-5.
Abstract:
Group-based geographic information systems for transportation impovement site selection
Author: Nyerges, T.L., Other Author(s): R. Montejano, C. Oshiro, and M. Dadswell.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Transpn Res.-C 5(6): 349-369.
Abstract: Transportation improvement site selection exemplifies transportation decision making that is collaborative in nature and geographically based. Such decision-making is part of a broad societal trend toward shared and participatory discussions about public investment. Perspectives from three different transportation decision contexts in the Puget Sound Region of Washington State, a regional council, a county government and a public-private Coalition group, are combined with a literature review to develop a decision task model that summarizes the need for information technology support during transportation improvement site selection. The task model guides the development of a decision support system requirement specification that outlines integrated information capabilities provided by geographic information system (GIS) and group support system (GSS) technologies. Together, GIS and GSS capabilities contribute to evolving group-based GIS. The kinds of capabilities a group-based GIS could offer in addressing the needs are identified. A report on the use of a prototype, group-based GIS called Spatial Group Choice highlights the possibilities in an inter-organizational coalition decision context. The conclusions discuss needs for future technology developments and social-behavioral science studies on these developments.Transportation improvement site selection exemplifies transportation decision making that is collaborative in nature and geographically based. Such decision-making is part of a broad societal trend toward shared and participatory discussions about public investment. Perspectives from three different transportation decision contexts in the Puget Sound Region of Washington State, a regional council, a county government and a public-private Coalition group, are combined with a literature review to develop a decision task model that summarizes the need for information technology support during transportation improvement site selection. The task model guides the development of a decision support system requirement specification that outlines integrated information capabilities provided by geographic information system (GIS) and group support system (GSS) technologies. Together, GIS and GSS capabilities contribute to evolving group-based GIS. The kinds of capabilities a group-based GIS could offer in addressing the needs are identified. A report on the use of a prototype, group-based GIS called Spatial Group Choice highlights the possibilities in an inter-organizational coalition decision context. The conclusions discuss needs for future technology developments and social-behavioral science studies on these developments.
Hagerstrand revisited: Interactive space-time visualizations of complex Spatial data
Author: Hedley, N.R., Other Author(s): C.H. Drew, E.A. Arfin, and A. Lee.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: Informatica 23: 155-168.
Abstract: Technological advances have rapidly changed the nature of spatial analytical tools in recent years. A tendency is for tool development to outpace theoretical and conceptual development. Occasionally, some conceptual frameworks must await the arrival of tools that can operationalize the elegance and sophistication they embody. This paper calls for reconsideration of a conceptual framework introduced by Hagerstrand (1970). It has taken until the late 1990s for tools appropriate for implementation of Hagerstrand's framework to develop, so that we may apply it in a meaningful and accessible manner that is grounded in pragmatic application. This paper shows that the visual component of Hagerstrand's space-time conceptual framework may now be operationalized, using advanced spatial analytical visualization techniques. We demonstrate a robust visual representation, its value in a real-world case study, and discuss the potential for future applications of this technique. A key theme in this work is that the fusion of space-time conceptual frameworks and appropriate spatial analytical visualization techniques (such as GIS) can make significant progress in facilitating user access to spatial data bases (in terms of understanding the data, as well as physical access). This is necessary to foster more democratic processes in collaborative settings. The project described in this paper meets that challenge, and appears to be the first example of an implementation that explicitly attempts to bridge this gap.
Hagerstrand revisited: Interactive space-time visualization of complex spatial data
Author: Hedley, N.R., Other Author(s): C.H. Drew, E.A. Arfin, and A. Lee.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: Informatica (Ljubljana) 23(2) 155-168.
Abstract: Technological advances have rapidly changed the nature of spatial analytical tools in recent years. A tendency is for tool development to outpace theoretical and conceptual development. Occasionally, some conceptual frameworks must await the arrival of tools that can operationalize the elegance and sophistication they embody. This paper calls for reconsideration of a conceptual framework introduced by Hagerstrand (1970). It has taken until the late 1990s for tools appropriate for implementation of Hagerstrand's framework to develop, so that we may apply it in a meaningful and accessible manner that is grounded in pragmatic applications. This paper shows that the visual component of Hagerstrand's space-time conceptual framework may now be operationalized, using advanced spatial analytical visualization techniques. We demonstrate a robust visual representation, its value in a real-world case study, and discuss the potential for future applications of this technique. A key theme in this work is that the fusion of space-time conceptual frameworks and appropriate spatial analytical visualization techniques (such as GIS) can make significant progress in facilitating user access to spatial data bases (in terms of understanding the data, as well as physical access). This is necessary to foster more democratic processes in collaborative settings. The project described in this paper meets that challenge, and appears to be the first example of an implementation that explicitly attempts to bridge this gap. (Author abstract) [References: 15]
Interactive computer demonstration: A space-time trajectory of 100-k area workers. Hanford Health of the Site
Author: Drew, C. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Second Annual Conference, Round One – Panel Discussions: Occupational Health, Richland, WA. November 3.v
Abstract:
Lung tissue responses and sites of particle retention differ between rats and cynomolgus monkeys exposed chronically to diesel exhaust and coal dust
Author: Nikula, K.J., Other Author(s): K.J. Avila, W.C. Griffith, and J.L. Mauderly.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 37: 37-53.
Abstract: Several chronic inhalation bioassays of poorly soluble, nonfibrous particles have resulted in an increased incidence of lung tumors in rats, no increase in lung tumors in Syrian hamsters, and inconsistent results in rnice. These results have raised concerns that rats may be more prone than other species to develop persistent pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and tumors in response to the accumulation of inhaled particles. In addition, particle deposition and the rate of particle clearance from the lung differ between rats and primates, as does the anatomy of the centriacinar region. For these reasons, the usefulness of pulmonary carcinogenicity data from rats exposed to high concentrations of particles for quantitatively predicting lung cancer risk in humans exposed to much lower environmental or occupational concentrations has been questioned. The purpose of this investigation was to directly compare the anatomical patterns of particle retention and the lung tissue responses of rats and monkeys exposed chronically to high occupational concentrations of poorly soluble particles. Lung sections from male cynomolgus monkeys and F344 rats exposed 7 hr/day, 5 days/week for 24 months to filtered ambient air, diesel exhaust (2 mg soot/m^3), coal dust (2 mg respirable particulate material/m^3), or diesel exhaust and coal dust combined (1 mg soot and 1 mg respirable coal dust/m^3) were examined histo-pathologically. The relative volume density of particulate material and the volume percentage of the total particulate material in defined pulmonary compartments were determined morphometrically to assess the relative amount and the anatomic distribution of retained particulate material. In all groups, relatively more particulate material was retained in monkey than in rat lungs. After adjustment for differences between rat and monkey controls, the coal dust and the combined diesel exhaust and coal dust exposed monkeys retained more particulate material than the coal dust and the combined diesel exhaust and coal dust-exposed rats, respectively. There was no significant difference in the relative amount of retained particulate material between diesel exhaust exposed monkeys and rats. Within each species, the sites of particle retention and lung tissue responses were the same for diesel soot, coal dust, and the combined material. Rats retained a greater portion of the particulate material in lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli than monkeys. Conversely, monkeys retained a greater portion of the particulate material in the interstitium than rats. Rats, but not monkey, had significant alveolar epithelial hyperplastic, inflammatory, and septal fibrotic responses to the retained particles. These results suggest that intrapulmonary particle retention patterns and tissue reactions in rats may not be predictive of retention patterns and tissue responses in primates exposed to poorly soluble particles at concentrations representing high occupational exposures.
Mapping tool to describe the uncertainty and variability in risk
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): and R.C. Lee.
Document Type: CRESP Questionnaires and Instruments Under Development
Publication Date: 200X
Citation:
Abstract:
Metadata Tool: A Guide to Hanford Data, Poster
Author: Yamaguchi, D. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: First Annual Health of the Hanford Site Conference: Current Challenges. Richland, WA, December 3-4.
Abstract:
Mortality among workers at a nuclear fuels production facility: The Savannah River Site, 1952-1995
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): D.L. Cragle, S. Brown and S. Mohr.
Document Type: CRESP Researcher Reports
Publication Date: 1999
Citation:
Abstract:
Progress in spatial decision making using geographic information systems(GIS)
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Published Books, Chapters, and Sections
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: In Geographic Information Research, Trans-Atlantic Perspectives, Chapter Eleven, edited by M. Craglia and H. Onsrud. London, England:Taylor and Francis.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Where are we with progress in spatial decision making using geographic nfomiation systems (GIS)? If you agree with David Cowen who wrote "I conclude that a GIS is best defined as a decision support system involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment" (Cowen, 1988, p. 1554), then perhaps we have amassed a wealth of experience using GIS in a spatial decision making context. If you agree more with Paul Densham who later wrote "current GIS fall short of providing GIA (geographic information analysis) capabilities (for decision making support)" (Densham, 1991, p. 405), then perhaps you believe that GIS has not evolved enough to truly support decision making. However, if you agree with Robert Lake who warns "ultimately at issue is whether the integrative capacity of GIS technology proves robust enough to encompass not simply more data but fundamentally different categories that extend considerably beyond the ethical, political, and epistemological limititions of positivism" (Lake, 1993, p. 141), then perhaps GIS might be a decision support disbenefit. Whether we consider GIS to be a spatial decision support system (SDSS) and/or a disbenefit if we asswne that the core of a SDSS relies on GIS technology, then we can assert that progress has been made with spatial decision making if we measure progress in terms of technology (tool) development. From that statement we can safely conclude that research on tool development has received much more attention over the years than has study of the tool use. We need to focus more energies on studying the use of the spatial infomiation technology to determine if progress has occurred. Good principles directed at design come from a good understanding of the principles of tool use. It is important to understand that a balance of research on tool development and tool use is probably the best approach to ensure progress. Such a position is advocated by Zachary (1988), DeSanctis and Gallupe (1987) and Benbasat and Nault (1990) working in a management information context on decision support. Tool development and use can be studied together effectively using a (recon)structurationist perspective (DeSanctis and Poole, 1994; Orlikowski, l992) regardless of the empirical research strategies employed. Tools beget new uses and new uses beget new tools. Understanding the impacts is fundamental to measuring progress. Most industry watchers would agree that GIS (and perhaps some SDSS) are used everyday throughout the world by individuals, groups, and organizations. Some progress in in research about GIS use is being made from an individual perspective (Crossland et al., 1995; Davies and Medyckyj-Scott 1995), a group perspective (Nyerges, 1995a; Nyerges and Jankowski, 1994), and Organisation perspective (de Man, 1988; Dickenson 1990; Onsrud et al., 1992). However, the research literature still lacks theoretical and empirical contributions about GIS use in general (Nyerges, 1993), let alone on the narrower topic of "spatial decision making". One of the reasons for the lack of research is that almost all of the GIS/SDSS and collaborative spatial decision making research has focused on software development. As in the management and decision sciences where interest in decision support system (DSS) development in the 1970s preceded studies of use in the 1980s, perhaps the same ten year lag is expected for GIS/SDSS development in the 1990s and studies of use after 2000. An additional reason might be that empirical studies about GIS/SDSS use have few guidelines from which to draw. From the outset, our focus will be on "use" of GIS, and its offspring SDSS, for spatial decision making. However, it should be recognised that GIS development is an integral part of the progress. To address the progress with GIS tool development and use, the chapter proceeds as follows. In the next section a framework for spatial decision making described in terms of input, process and outcome, helps us uncover the complexity about tool use. The framework establishes a scope for many variables/issues. In the third section we assess the progress in spatial decision making using GIS/SDSS by examining relationships between issues/variables. The fourth section contains an overview of research strategies that might be useful for exploring the impacts of tool development on tool use. Finally, the fifth section presents generalizations about progress and directions for research.
Progress in spatial decision making using GIS
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1996
Citation: 1996 International Young Scholars Summer Institute in Geographic Information. National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Berlin, Germany.
Abstract:
Public participation Geographic Information Systems
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting. Ft. Worth, TX, April 1-5.
Abstract:
Public participation Geographic Information Systems
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: AutoCarto 13, International Symposium of Automated Cartography. Seattle, WA, April 7-10.
Abstract:
Public participation Geographic Information Systems
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): M. Barndt, and K. Brooks.
Document Type: CRESP Proceedings
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: In proceedings of AutoCarto 13, International Symposium on Automated Cartography. Seattle, WA, April 7-10.
Abstract:
Quantitaive assessment of risk perception: The risk communication profile instrument
Author: Brown, S., Other Author(s): S. Greenberg, B. Buckley, D. Kosson, R. Oldendick and B. Williams.
Document Type: CRESP Submitted Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: Psychological Reports
Abstract:
Quantitative assessment of risk perception: The risk communication profile instrument
Author: Brown, S., Other Author(s): M. Greenberg, B. Buckley, D. Kosson, R. Oldendick, and B. Williams.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting. Washington, DC.
Abstract:
RAIT 1.0: Risk assessment inventory tool
Author: Smith, A., Other Author(s): T. Nyerges, and C. Farr.
Document Type: CRESP Computer Programs Developed
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: June.
Abstract:
Research strategies for risk evaluation with stakeholder participation
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): C. Drew, N. Hedley, and C. Hendrcksen.
Document Type: CRESP Proceedings
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting, Honolulu, HI. March 27.
Abstract:
Research strategies for studying collaborative use of GIS risk evaluation
Author: Nyerges, T., Other Author(s): C. Drew, N. Hedley, and C. Hendricksen.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: GIS/LIS 1997 Annual Meeting. Cincinnati, OH, October 28.
Abstract:
Revising strontium-90 radiation standards for environmental cleanup
Author: Griffith, W.C., Other Author(s): S.B. Curtis, S.M. Bartell, and E.M. Faustman.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Poster. Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. December 6-9.
Abstract:
Rising winter precipitation at the Hanford nuclear reservation, Washington: possible implications for surface barrier performance. Poster
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): and S. Brown.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: CRESP 1998 Annual Meeting, Dingmans Ferry, Pa, June.
Abstract:
Risk Information Tool: Stakeholder Participation in an Internet Forum for Communication about Risks at Department of Energy Facilities
Author: Griffith W., Other Author(s): et al.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: First Annual Health of the Hanford Site Conference: Current Challenges. Richland, WA, December 4.
Abstract: OTHER AUTHORS :S. Curtis, A. Smith, M. Robkin, T. Nyerges, C. Hendricksen, E. Faustman, R. Ponce, S. Bartell, T. Takaro, K. Durand, K. Ertell, M.A. Hawke, J. Massmann, D. Mercer., D. Grace, T. Potter-Chiles, and E. Hemmings. Hemmings. ABSTRACT:The Department of Energy (DOE) needs to involve many communities near its facilities in decisions about deactivation and remediation of its sites. This has been difficult because of lack of true due to DOE's past history of not involving communities in decisions about the use of its sites. Much of the concern in the communities has been about health, ecological, and cultural risks due to past activities at the sites. To demonstrate better communication of information about DOE sites the CREAT Focus Group is designing with stakeholder input a Risk Information Tool for use on the Internet. The group has developed a prototype tool for former reactor sites along the Columbia River at the Hanford facility. The design of the tool is a geographic information system-based computer discussion forum that contains general information about Hanford and risks from three contaminants: hexavalent chromium, tritium, and trichloroethylene. This Internet forum serves as a means not only of compiling, evaluating, and displaying large amounts of data but also as a means of incorporating stakeholder concerns about contamination and other risks. The experience of the group with the prototype tool will be evaluated to determine whether involving stakeholders in the design of the tool provides a better mean s of communicating risk information, and whether understanding of stakeholder concerns alters the research questions pursued by investigators."
Risk information tool: Stakeholder participation in an internet forum for communication about risks at Department of Energy facilities
Author: Griffith, W., Other Author(s): et al.
Document Type: CRESP Proceedings
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: In Proceedings of the First Annual Health of the Hanford Site Conference: Current Challenges, 326-330. Richland, WA, December 3-4, 1997.
Abstract: Other Authors -S. Curtis, A. Smith, M. Robkin, T. Nyerges, C. Hendricksen, E. Faustman, R. Ponce, T. Takaro, K. Durand, K. Ertell, M.A. Hawke, J. Massmann, D. Mercer, D. Grace, T. Potter-Chiles, and E. Hemmings.
Risk information tool: Stakeholder participation in an internet forum for communication about risks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities
Author: Griffith, W.C., Other Author(s): et al.
Document Type: CRESP Submitted Manuscripts
Publication Date: 200X
Citation: Environmental Science and Technology.
Abstract: OTHER AUTHORS: S. Curtis, A. Smith, M. Robkin, T.L. Nyerges, C., Hendricksen, E.M. Faustman, R.A. Ponce, S.M. Bartell, T.J. Takaro, K. Kuran, K. Ertell, M.A. Hawke, J. Massmann, D. Mercer, D. Grace, T. Potter-Chiles, and E. Hemmings.
Socioeconomic characteristics, perceived credibility and frequency of use of information sources among stakeholders of the Savannah River Site
Author: Brown, S., Other Author(s): B. Williams, and M. Greenberg.
Document Type: CRESP Researcher Reports
Publication Date: 1998
Citation:
Abstract:
Stakeholder participation in an internet forum for communication about risks at Department of Energy facilities
Author: Griffith. W., Other Author(s): A. Smith, S. Curtis, S.M. Bartell, M. Hawke, D. Mercer, M. Robkin, C. Hendricksen, T. Potter-Chiles, D. Grace, and K. Durand.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Poster. Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. December
Abstract:
Statistical approaches to distinct value estimation
Author: Brutlag J. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Dissertations or Theses Completed
Publication Date: 1999
Citation: Seattle, WA: University of Washington.
Abstract:
The Hanford Cleanup: Using GIS for Risk Assessment and Decisionmaking
Author: Drew, C. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Seattle Central Community College, November 20.
Abstract:
The use of the Web as a research tool
Author: Hendricksen, C. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Medical Library Association, Seattle, WA, May, 25.
Abstract:
The value of biomarker information in aflatoxin risk management
Author: Lee, R.C., Other Author(s): S.M. Bartell, R.A. Ponce, and W.C. Griffith.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Society for Risk analysis Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, March 1-5.
Abstract:
Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in dogs
Author: Muggenburg, B.A., Other Author(s): B.B. Boecker, A.F. Hubbs, F.F. Hahn, M.B. Snipes, J.H. Diel, G.J. Newton, and W.C. Griffith.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: Radiation Research 150: 212-226.
Abstract: This study was conducted in dogs to determine the toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3, which is of interest because 91Y is a fission-product radionuclide that is abundant in a reactor inventory after sustained operation. Yttrium-91 has a short half-life, 59 days, and decays with the emission of P particles and low-yield y rays. The study was conducted in 58 beagle dogs with equal numbers of males and females. Forty-six dogs inhaled the 91YCl3 aerosol, while 12 served as controls. Four exposure levels were used. To determine the long-term retained burden (LTRB) of 91Y, each dog was periodically whole-body counted and its excreta were analyzed radiochemically. Over time, the 91Y transferred from the lung primarily to the skeleton and liver. The dogs were observed over their life spans for biological effects. Fatal hematological dyserasia occurred from 12 to 33 days after exposure in the dogs with the highest LTRBS. Bone-associated tumors of the nasal and oral mucosae occurred in 5 dogs from 2000 to 5800 days after they inhaled the 91YCl3 aerosols. Five dogs died with malignant lung tumors and 2 dogs with malignant liver tumors. The results of this study were compared to those from similar studies in beagles that inhaled 9OSrCl2 or 144CeCl3 or were injected with 137CsCl. The comparison showed that the biological effects in each study were clearly dependent on the cumulative doses to critical organs.
Trichloroethylene and cancer: Epidemiologic evidence
Author: Wartenberg, D., Other Author(s): D. Reyner, and C. S. Scott.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 2000
Citation: Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (Supplement 2):161-176.
Abstract:
Uncertainty in quantitative risk assessment: A review of inputs and applications. Poster
Author: Binkowitz, B., Other Author(s): G. Harris, and D. Wartenberg.
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1998
Citation: CRESP 1998 Annual Meeting, Dingmans Ferry, Pa, June.
Abstract:
Understanding risk to workers at the Savannah River Site
Author: Wartenberg, D. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1996
Citation: Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board (SRS-CAB) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Subcommittee. Augusta, GA, November.
Abstract:
Understanding risk to workers at the Savannah River Site
Author: Wartenberg, D. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Presentations, Posters, and Abstracts
Publication Date: 1996
Citation: Center for Disease Control (CDC) Health Effects Subcommittee. Atlanta, GA, October.
Abstract:
Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze risk
Author: Nyerges, T. Other Author(s):
Document Type: CRESP Symposia, Workshops, and Stakeholder Events
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) Forum. Annapolis, MD, June 1-3.
Abstract:
What transportation modeling needs from a GIS: A conceptual framework
Author: McCormack, E., Other Author(s): and T.L. Nyerges.
Document Type: CRESP Published Manuscripts
Publication Date: 1997
Citation: Journal of Transportation Planning and Technology 21: 5-23.
Abstract: Both the geographic information system (GIS) and transportation modeling environments have seen continually developing analytic concepts and techniques. However, these developments have seldom resulted in the integration of GISs and transportation models. This paper explores the potential inherent in merging of these environments through a systematic investigation of the fundamental basis of integration. To do this, the traditional four step transportation modeling process is extended to include input and output steps. We then define functional components for GIS data handling--data management, manipulation, and analysis. The steps of modeling are matched against the list of GIS data handling functions within a matrix-based framework. GIS functions that enhance a land-use based urban transportation modeling process are then categorized. Conclusions are drawn and directions for future developments are discussed.

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