Burger, J. "Incorporating Ecology and Ecological Risk into Long-Term Stewardship on Contaminated Sites." Remediation Winter (2002): 107-119.

The long-term management of environmental contamination will be a major activity at many sites in the foreseeable future. While human health issues often drive decisions about cleanup, restoration, and long-term stewardship, ecological considerations are also major driving forces and are of paramount importance to the public. Incorporation of ecological considerations into decisions about environmental protection, both short term and long term, requires (1) understanding public perceptions of ecological values, including aesthetics and existence values, (2) understanding contamination issues within a context of the structure and functioning of ecosystems, (3) developing bioindicators of ecological health (including human), (4) developing indicators of ecosystem functioning, and (5) developing and implementing a biomonitoring plan before, during, and after remediation so that adverse effects can be ascertained before they become irreversible. Both remediation/restoration and long-term
stewardship goals must be informed by public policy mandates that include public participation and healthy human and ecological systems. This article examines these issues as they relate to cost-effective, long-term protection of human and ecological health on contaminated lands.