Zhu, Y. G. and G. Shaw. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation. Chemosphere 41: (2000)121-128.

Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly super(137)Cs and super(90)Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the food chain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially super(137)Cs and super(90)Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail.